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Early Innovator Nursing Informatics Journal Articles


  • Virginia K. Saba, EdD, RN, FAAN, FACMI
  • Susan Newbold, PhD, RN, FAAN, FHIMSS
  • Juliana J. Brixey, PhD, MPH, MSN, RN
  • Jack E. Brixey MS, MTASCP
  • NI History Committee

An archival list of ‘keystone’ articles written by approximately 100 Nursing Informatics (NI) pioneers is now available for review. At least one published article written by a NI Pioneer was compiled as an example of the early writings on ‘Computer Applications in Nursing’ now called ‘Nursing Informatics.’  Starting in the early 1970s and on through 1990s, this list of journal articles demonstrates the depth and breadth of NI topics as highlighted by the pioneers’ article titles as well as the titles of the journals publishing the articles.  The titles focus on all areas of the nursing profession, namely, nursing practice, nursing administration, nursing education and nursing research.  These articles illustrate that Nursing Informatics, this new specialty, was on the forefront of the nursing profession prior to be recognized by the American Nurses Association in 1991.

The articles are available at the Texas Medical Center (TMC) Library in Houston, TX.


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Andreoli, K., & Musser, L. A. (1985). Computers in nursing care: the state of the art. Nurs Outlook, 33(1), 16-21.

Armstrong, M. (1986). Self-directed learning about computers and computers for self-directed learning. J Contin Educ Nurs, 17(3), 84-86.

Armstrong, M. L. (1983). Paving the way for more effective computer usage. Nurs Health Care, 4(10), 557-559.

Armstrong, M. L. (1986). Computer competence for nurse educators. Image J Nurs Sch, 18(4), 155-160.

Armstrong, M. L., Toebe, D. M., & Watson, M. R. (1985). Strengthening the instructional role in self-directed learning activities. J Contin Educ Nurs, 16(3), 75-79.

Ball, M. J., & Douglas, J. V. (1990). Informatics programs in the United States and abroad. MD Comput, 7(3), 172-175.

Ball, M. J., & Douglas, J. V. (1992). The CIO's key role in healthcare strategic planning. Comput Healthc, 13(5), 17, 19, 21.

Ball, M. J., & Douglas, J. V. (1992). Preparing medical informaticians: a cross-disciplinary approach. Comput Healthc, 13(7), 38-41.

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Ball, M. J., Snelbecker, G. E., & Schechter, S. L. (1985). Nurses' perceptions concerning computer uses before and after a computer literacy lecture. Comput Nurs, 3(1), 23-32.

Berg, C. M., & Gould, W. (1991). Patient care systems: do they meet the needs of nursing? Comput Healthc, 12(4), 26, 30, 32.

Billings, D. M. (1984). Evaluating computer assisted instruction. Nurs Outlook, 32(1), 50-53.

Bitzer, M. D., & Bitzer, D. L. (1973). Teaching nursing by computer: an evaluative study. Comput Biol Med, 3(3), 187-204.

Bitzer, M. D., & Boudreaux, M. C. (1969). Using a computer to teach nursing. Nurs Forum, 8(3), 234-254.

Brennan, P. F., Ferris, M., Robinson, S., Wright, S., & Marquard, J. (2005). Modeling participation in the NHII: operations research approach. AMIA Annu Symp Proc, 76-80.

Brennan, P. F., & Romano, C. A. (1987). Computers and nursing diagnoses. Issues in implementation. Nurs Clin North Am, 22(4), 935-941.

Brennan, P. F., & Strombom, I. (1998). Improving health care by understanding patient preferences: the role of computer technology. J Am Med Inform Assoc, 5(3), 257-262.

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Buckle, J. M., Horn, S. D., & Simpson, R. L. (1991). Nursing care classification: a conceptual model. Appl Nurs Res, 4(3), 100-106.

Chang, B. L. (1984). Adoption of innovations. Nursing and computer use. Comput Nurs, 2(6), 229-235.

Chang, B. L., Bakken, S., Brown, S. S., Houston, T. K., Kreps, G. L., Kukafka, R., . . . Stavri, P. Z. (2004). Bridging the digital divide: reaching vulnerable populations. J Am Med Inform Assoc, 11(6), 448-457. doi:10.1197/jamia.M1535

Chang, B. L., & Hirsch, M. (1991). Knowledge acquisition and knowledge representation in a rule-based expert system. Comput Nurs, 9(5), 174-178.

Chang, B. L., & Hirsch, M. (1994). Nursing diagnosis research: computer-aided research in nursing. Nurs Diagn, 5(1), 6-13.

Chang, B. L., Roth, K., Gonzales, E., Caswell, D., & DiStefano, J., 3rd. (1988). CANDI. A knowledge-based system for nursing diagnosis. Comput Nurs, 6(1), 13-21.

Clark, J., & Lang, N. (1992). Nursing's next advance: an internal classification for nursing practice. Int Nurs Rev, 39(4), 109-111, 128.

Cohen, P. T., & Henry, S. B. (1995). Representing HIV clinical terminology with SNOMED. Medinfo, 8 Pt 1, 172.

Collen, M. F. (1989). Evolution of medical informatics societies in the United States. MD Comput, 6(4), 192-198.

Collen, M. F. (1999). A vision of health care and informatics in 2008. J Am Med Inform Assoc, 6(1), 1-5.

Cook, M. (1982). Selecting the right computer system. Nurs Manage, 13(8), 26-28.

Cook, M., & McDowell, W. (1975). Changing to an automated information system. Am J Nurs, 75(1), 46-51.

Curtin, L. L. (1982). Nursing: patient care & computers. How they work together. Nurs Manage, 13(8), 25-53.

Douglas, J. V. Part II. Planning and Implementing Integrated Information Services. Journal of the American Society for Information Science, 39(2).

Douglas, J. V., & Lunin, L. F. (1988). Informatics and Education in the Health Professions. Journal of the American Society for Information Science, 39(5), 344-347.

Edmunds, L. (1982). Computer-assisted nursing care. Am J Nurs, 82(7), 1076-1079.

Edmunds, L. (1982). Teaching nurses to use computers. Nurse Educ, 7(5), 32-38.

Edmunds, L. (1983). A computer assisted quality assurance model. J Nurs Adm, 13(3), 36-43.

Edmunds, L. (1984). Computers and patient care. A complete system. AORN J, 39(2), 176-183.

Edmunds, L. (1984). Computers for inpatient nursing care. What can be accomplished? Comput Nurs, 2(3), 102-108.

Farlee, C. (1978). The computer as a focus of organizational change in the hospital. J Nurs Adm, 8(2), 20-26.

Fitzpatrick, J. J., Kerr, M. E., Saba, V. K., Hoskins, L. M., Hurley, M. E., Mills, W. C., Carpenito, L. J. (1989). Translating nursing diagnosis into ICD code. Am J Nurs, 89(4), 493-495.

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Gassert, C. A. (1998). The challenge of meeting patients' needs with a national nursing informatics agenda. J Am Med Inform Assoc, 5(3), 263-268.

Gillis, P. A., Booth, H., Graves, J. R., Fehlauer, C. S., & Soller, J. (1994). Translating traditional principles of system development into a process for designing clinical information systems. Int J Technol Assess Health Care, 10(2), 235-248.

Giovannetti, P. (1979). Understanding patient classification systems. J Nurs Adm, 9(2), 4-9.

Giovannetti, P. (1985). DRGs and nursing workload measures. Comput Nurs, 3(2), 88-91.

Giovannetti, P., & Mayer, G. G. (1984). Building confidence in patient classification systems. Nurs Manage, 15(8), 31-34.

Goodwin, J. O., & Edwards, B. S. (1975). Developing a computer program to assist the nursing process: phase I-from systems analysis to an expandable program. Nurs Res, 24(4), 299-305.

Goossen, W. T. (1996). Nursing information management and processing: a framework and definition for systems analysis, design and evaluation. Int J Biomed Comput, 40(3), 187-195.

Goossen, W. T., Jonker, M. J., Heitmann, K. U., Jongeneel-de Haas, I. C., de Jong, T., van der Slikke, J. W., & Kabbes, B. L. (2003). Electronic patient records: domain message information model perinatology. Int J Med Inform, 70(2-3), 265-276.

Goossen, W. T., Ozbolt, J. G., Coenen, A., Park, H. A., Mead, C., Ehnfors, M., & Marin, H. F. (2004). Development of a provisional domain model for the nursing process for use within the Health Level 7 reference information model. J Am Med Inform Assoc, 11(3), 186-194. doi:10.1197/jamia.M1085

Graves, J. (1996). New classification system announced. Reflections, 22(2), 24-27.

Graves, J. R., & Corcoran, S. (1989). The study of nursing informatics. Image J Nurs Sch, 21(4), 227-231.

Grobe, S. J. (1996). The nursing intervention lexicon and taxonomy: implications for representing nursing care data in automated patient records. Holist Nurs Pract, 11(1), 48-63.

Gugerty, B., Occhino, S., Ventura, M., & Haley, M. (1993). The interaction of information technology and nursing quality improvement: important trends. J Nurs Care Qual, 7(4), 19-25.

Haas, S. A. (1984). Sorting out nursing productivity. Nurs Manage, 15(4), 37-40.

Hadorn, D. C., McCormick, K., & Diokno, A. (1992). An annotated algorithm approach to clinical guideline development. JAMA, 267(24), 3311-3314.

Halloran, E. J., & Kiley, M. (1984). Case mix management. Nurs Manage, 15(2), 39-41, 44-35.

Halloran, E. J., Patterson, C., & Kiley, M. (1987). Case-mix: matching patient need with nursing resource. Nurs Manage, 18(3), 27-30, 32, 36 passim.

Halloran, E. J., & Vermeersch, P. E. (1987). Variability in nurse staffing research. J Nurs Adm, 17(2), 26-34.

Hannah, K. J. (1976). The computer and nursing practice. Nurs Outlook, 24(9), 555-558.

Hardiker, N. R., & Rector, A. L. (1998). Modeling nursing terminology using the GRAIL representation language. J Am Med Inform Assoc, 5(1), 120-128.

Hardiker, N. R., & Rector, A. L. (2001). Structural validation of nursing terminologies. J Am Med Inform Assoc, 8(3), 212-221.

Hassett, M. R. (1984). Computers and nursing education in the 1980s. Nurs Outlook, 32(1), 34-36.

Hays, B. J., Norris, J., Martin, K. S., & Androwich, I. (1994). Informatics issues for nursing's future. ANS Adv Nurs Sci, 16(4), 71-81.

Heller, B. R., Romano, C. A., Damrosch, S., & Parks, P. (1985). Computer applications in nursing. Implications for the curriculum. Comput Nurs, 3(1), 14-22.

Henry, S. B. (1991). Clinical decision making of critical care nurses managing computer-simulated tachydysrhythmias. Heart Lung, 20(5 Pt 1), 469-477.

Henry, S. B. (1991). Effect of level of patient acuity on clinical decision making of critical care nurses with varying levels of knowledge and experience. Heart Lung, 20(5 Pt 1), 478-485.

Henry, S. B., Douglas, K., Galzagorry, G., Lahey, A., & Holzemer, W. L. (1998). A template-based approach to support utilization of clinical practice guidelines within an electronic health record. J Am Med Inform Assoc, 5(3), 237-244.

Henry, S. B., & Holzemer, W. L. (1993). The relationship between performance on computer-based clinical simulations and two written methods of evaluation: cognitive examination and self-evaluation of expertise. Comput Nurs, 11(1), 29-34.

Henry, S. B., Holzemer, W. L., Randell, C., Hsieh, S. F., & Miller, T. J. (1997). Comparison of nursing interventions classification and current procedural terminology codes for categorizing nursing activities. Image J Nurs Sch, 29(2), 133-138.

Henry, S. B., Holzemer, W. L., Reilly, C. A., Miller, T. J., & Randall, C. (1995). A comparison of nursing intervention classification and current procedural terminology codes for representing nursing interventions in HIV disease. Medinfo, 8 Pt 1, 131-135.

Henry, S. B., LeBreck, D. B., & Holzemer, W. L. (1989). The effect of verbalization of cognitive processes on clinical decision making. Res Nurs Health, 12(3), 187-193.

Henry, S. B., & Mead, C. N. (1997). Evaluating standardized coding and classification systems for clinical practice: a critical review of the nursing literature in the United States. Stud Health Technol Inform, 46, 15-20.

Henry, S. B., & Waltmire, D., 2nd. (1992). Computerized clinical simulations: a strategy for staff development in critical care. Am J Crit Care, 1(2), 99-107.

Hollers, F. K. (1995). Using clinical information to manage managed care. Caring, 14(8), 66-68, 70.

Holzemer, W. L., & Henry, S. B. (1991). Nursing care plans for people with HIV/AIDS: confusion or consensus? J Adv Nurs, 16(3), 257-261.

Holzemer, W. L., & Henry, S. B. (1992). Computer-supported versus manually-generated nursing care plans: a comparison of patient problems, nursing interventions, and AIDS patient outcomes. Comput Nurs, 10(1), 19-24.

Holzemer, W. L., & Reilly, C. A. (1995). Variables, variability, and variations research: implications for medical informatics. J Am Med Inform Assoc, 2(3), 183-190.

Holzemer, W. L., Slichter, M. J., Slaughter, R. E., Stotts, N. A., Chambers, D. B., & Scheetz, S. (1984). Development of a computer resources facility. Nurs Health Care, 5(10), 545-547.

Holzemer, W. L., & Tallberg, M. (1995). Informatics: the infrastructure for quality assessment and quality improvement in nursing. J Am Med Inform Assoc, 2(3), 198-199.

Hughes, S. J., & Andrew, W. F. (1996). Calling all nurses: report to Jericho stat. Healthc Inform, 13(4), 52-54, 60.

Jordan-Marsh, M., & Chang, B. L. (1985). Assessing readiness for interaction with computers in medical centers. Comput Nurs, 3(6), 266-271.

Joseph, L. S., & Joseph, A. F. (1985). Developing educational software for publisher vendors. Nurs Clin North Am, 20(3), 529-547.

Kilby, S. A., Fishel, C. C., & Gupta, A. D. (1989). Access to nursing information resources. Image J Nurs Sch, 21(1), 26-30.

Kiley, M., Halloran, E. J., Monahan, J. L., Nosek, L., & Patterson, C. (1986). A nursing information system using nursing diagnosis. Ohio Nurses Rev, 61(5), 7-8.

Kiley, M., Halloran, E. J., Weston, J. L., Ozbolt, J. G., Werley, H. H., Gordon, M., Grier, M. (1983). Computerized nursing information system (NIS). Nurs Manage, 14(7), 26-29.

Korpman, R. A. (1994). Integrated patient-centered computing: operations optimization for the 21st century. Top Health Inf Manage, 14(4), 11-23.

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Lenkman, S. (1984). A nursing administration tool for the 80's. Comput Healthc, 5(3), 28-30.

Lenkman, S. (1985). Management information systems and the role of the nurse vendor. Nurs Clin North Am, 20(3), 557-565.

Leske, J. S., & Werley, H. H. (1992). Use of the nursing minimum data set. Comput Nurs, 10(6), 259-263.

Martin, K., Leak, G., & Aden, C. (1992). The Omaha System. A research-based model for decision making. J Nurs Adm, 22(11), 47-52.

McBride, A. B. (1986). Present issues and future perspectives of psychosocial nursing. Theory and research. J Psychosoc Nurs Ment Health Serv, 24(9), 27-32.

McBride, A. B. (2005). Nursing and the informatics revolution. Nurs Outlook, 53(4), 183-191; discussion 192. doi:10.1016/j.outlook.2005.02.006

McCormick, K., Renner, A. L., Mayes, R., Regan, J., & Greenberg, M. (1997). The federal and private sector roles in the development of minimum data sets and core health data elements. Comput Nurs, 15(2 Suppl), S23-32.

McCormick, K. A. (1991). Future data needs for quality of care monitoring, DRG considerations, reimbursement and outcome measurement. Image J Nurs Sch, 23(1), 29-32.

McCormick, K. A., Cohen, E., Reed, M., Sparks, S., & Wasem, C. (1996). Funding nursing informatics activities. Internet access to announcements of government funding. Comput Nurs, 14(6), 315-322.

McCormick, K. A., Delaney, C. J., Brennan, P. F., Effken, J. A., Kendrick, K., Murphy, J., Westra, B. L. (2007). Guideposts to the future--an agenda for nursing informatics. J Am Med Inform Assoc, 14(1), 19-24. doi:10.1197/jamia.M1996

McCormick, K. A., Lang, N., Zielstorff, R., Milholland, D. K., Saba, V., & Jacox, A. (1994). Toward standard classification schemes for nursing language: recommendations of the American Nurses Association Steering Committee on Databases to Support Clinical Nursing Practice. J Am Med Inform Assoc, 1(6), 421-427.

McCormick, K. A., & McQueen, L. (1988). New computer technology. Ser Nurs Adm, 1, 59-69.

Middleton, B., Hammond, W. E., Brennan, P. F., & Cooper, G. F. (2005). Accelerating U.S. EHR adoption: how to get there from here. Recommendations based on the 2004 ACMI retreat. J Am Med Inform Assoc, 12(1), 13-19. doi:10.1197/jamia.M1669

Mikan, K. J. (1984). Computer integration: a challenge for nursing education. Nurs Outlook, 32(1), 6.

Milholland, D. K., & Heller, B. R. (1992). Computer-based patient record: from pipe dream to reality. Comput Nurs, 10(5), 191-192.

Mowry, M. M., & Korpman, R. A. (1987). Automated information systems in quality assurance. Nurs Econ, 5(5), 237-244.

Mowry, M. M., & Korpman, R. A. (1987). Evaluating automated information systems. Nurs Econ, 5(1), 7-12.

Ozbolt, J. G. (1986). Designing information systems for nursing practice: data base and knowledge base requirements of different organizational technologies. Comput Methods Programs Biomed, 22(1), 61-65.

Ozbolt, J. G., Fruchtnicht, J. N., & Hayden, J. R. (1994). Toward data standards for clinical nursing information. J Am Med Inform Assoc, 1(2), 175-185.

Ozbolt, J. G., & Graves, J. R. (1993). Clinical nursing informatics. Developing tools for knowledge workers. Nurs Clin North Am, 28(2), 407-425.

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Van Slyck, A. (1991). A systems approach to the management of nursing services, Part VI: Costing system. Nurs Manage, 22(8), 14-16.

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Van Slyck, A. (1991). A systems approach to the management of nursing services. Part III: Staffing system. Nurs Manage, 22(5), 30, 32, 34.

Van Slyck, A. (1991). A systems approach to the management of nursing services. Part IV: Productivity monitoring system. Nurs Manage, 22(6), 18-20.

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